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Prometheus Books Style Sheet
I. General Rules for Submission
Manuscripts should be submitted digitally and on two hard (paper) copies. Do not print text using proportional (“justified”) spacing. Although we prefer that digital files be in Microsoft Word, they can be in any application except Pagemaker, Quark, Powerpoint, or HTML. Each chapter, including the table of contents, should be a separate file.
Notes to each chapter should be placed at the end of that chapter. Notes should be number consecutively throughout each chapter using the documentation style outlined in this style sheet. (Prometheus Books does not follow the social science practice of using numbered reference lists.)
N.B. Authors are responsible for the correct formatting of notes and bibliographies. If this material is not in Chicago Manual of Style format, it will be returned to the author for correction.
Authors are advised to use American rather than British spellings (thus, color not colour, defense not defence).
Authors should avoid statements or allegations that are gratuitously obscene or inflammatory or potentially libelous. We reserve the right to vet all manuscripts with an attorney.
If the manuscript includes art and/or illustrations, these should be sent at the same time as the manuscript. It is the author’s responsibility to secure necessary permission for all illustrations, reprints of published articles, or other copyrighted material. For the author’s convenience, a permission request form providing information on book price, print run, and other pertinent data can be supplied by Prometheus Books. Permission fees for copyrighted material will be paid in the first instance by author or via deduction from royalties as arranged by the publisher.
Authors are asked to have access to e-mail and fax machines.
Prometheus’s “house style” is derived from The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition (2003). Common points of spelling and punctuation, style, and grammar and usage, as well as tips for documentation, are given below.
Copyedited manuscript and galley proofs sometimes contain a number of editorial and proofreading marks. A list of common proofreaders’ marks can be found online here.
II. Spelling and Punctuation
1. The tendency is not to double the l in such words as traveler or rivaled when that word is accented on the first syllable; if the word is not accented on the first syllable, then the l should be doubled—thus, control, controlling. In cases of uncertainty, consult Webster’s American Dictionary, 11th edition.
2. Prometheus’s preference for -care words is to close them up for both noun and adjective forms: healthcare, daycare, childcare.
3. A list of some commonly misspelled words is found at the end of this style manual.
4. Follow Webster’s American Dictionary, 11th edition, for the use or omission of accents on words in the main vocabulary. A list of some words that have accents versus ones that do not is found at the end of this style manual.
5. In American English, the “s” should be omitted from words ending in “-ward(s).”
6. Combining terms of dissimilar construction that share a common element is unacceptable.
cell biology and radiobiology (not cell and radiobiology)
neurophysiology and electrophysiology (not neuro- and electrophysiology)
but computer and electrical engineering
But if two adjacent hyphenated terms share a common last element, configure as follows:
pre- and post-Jurassic teeth
long- and short-term goals
With more than two terms, configure as follows:
French-, German-, Spanish-, and Esperanto-speaking ninjas
a. In a series consisting of three or more elements, the elements are separated by commas.
Men, women, boys, and girls
My parents, the pope, and Mother Teresa
b. A comma normally precedes a direct quote following a verb of speaking. An indirect quote is normally not preceded by a comma.
He said, “I am leaving.”
He said (that) he was leaving.
(But cf. The president said that “there is no room for compromise.”)
c. Commas are not used after question marks or exclamation points.
“Get out!” he shouted.
His only book, Where Has My Sanity Gone? was met with ruthless criticism.
d. When a single quotation mark is used within a double quotation mark, both marks follow the comma.
“Today we’ll read Frost’s ‘Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,’” the teacher said.
N.B. A comma or a period follows a single closing quotation mark in linguistic and botanical usage. (This rule no longer applies to special terms used in philosophy, since single quotation marks are now discouraged in this context.)
e. In general, avoid using commas to mimic speech rhythms.
f. Put a comma before “and,” “but,” “or,” “nor,” “for,” “so,” and “yet” when they connect independent clauses unless the clauses are closely related and very short.
g. Do not put a comma before the conjunction in a compound predicate consisting of only two members unless it is needed for clarity. The commas in the following examples are wrong and should be deleted.
The stranger offered the child candy, and made shadow puppets with his fingers.
The faculty is not departmentalized, but is unofficially organized into research groups.
These workers not only conduct reconnaissance missions, but also build infrastructure for indigenous peoples.
h. By the same token, a comma is not generally desirable before the conjunction in a compound phrase consisting of only two members.
The watering hole is located in the center of a residential district and within a few blocks of medical facilities.
i. Do not put a comma between the grammatical subject of a sentence and its predicate. The comma in the following example is wrong and should be deleted.
To express such an idea to her or to anyone else, would be vain and presumptuous.
j. When a phrase or clause is introduced by “as,” “since,” or “while” used in a temporal sense, its use is restrictive and must not be set off by a comma.
Drive slowly as you pass the school.
Do not whistle while working.
k. When “as,” “since,” or “while” expresses cause or condition, it introduces a nonrestrictive phrase or clause and should be preceded by a comma.
We must depart immediately, as the bus will not wait.
The student was punished severely, since he would not repent.
Some criminals confessed, while others feigned innocence.
l. Set off a dependent clause that precedes the main clause by a comma.
Emblazoned on the company’s orange trucks, the name A. Duie Pyle ensured instant recognition.
m. When a dependent clause is sandwiched between two main clauses, put a comma before the conjunction, after the conjunction, and after the dependent clause.
This is the usual procedure, but, since the publisher is responsible, the editor must carefully restock all the red pens in the building every Friday morning.
n. Use paired commas around a dependent clause inserted into a “that” clause.
Facts show that, because the older system has been in use for many years, most authors rely on it when the new rules confound them.
(Do not repeat “that” after the second comma.)
o. Set off nonrestrictive elements by commas; conversely, do not set off restrictive elements.
My brother, John, makes the decisions. (I have only one brother.)
My brother John makes the decisions. (I have more than one brother.)
p. Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives modifying the same noun. If “and” can be inserted between the adjectives, they are coordinate. When in doubt, omit the comma.
a warm, humid climate
large, air-conditioned buildings
q. Use a comma to prevent mistaken junction. (But rewrite sentences in which emphasis is not originally parallel.)
Soon after, the conference was interrupted.
She recognized the man who entered the room, and gasped.
r. Use commas between the elements of dates and place names and after the last element. In a sequence of three or more city and state names, use a comma after the cities and a semicolon after the states. Do not use commas with dates that consist of only two elements.
on Tuesday, February 1, 1995, we began . . .
in February 1995 we began . . .
in summer 2001 we began . . .
Princeton, New Jersey, is the home of . . .
Nashville, Tennessee; Athens, Georgia; Norman, Oklahoma; and Waco, Texas
s. Do not put a comma before “Jr.,” “Sr.,” “II,” or “III” unless the name is inverted.
John J. Jones Jr.
Jones, John J., Jr.
a. When items in a series are long and complex or include internal punctuation, the semicolon is used.
The membership of the international commission was as follows: France, 4; Germany, 5; Great Britain, 1; and the United States, 7.
His problems as a writer centered on poor concept formation; style, substance, and form; and a general misunderstanding of his purpose.
(For semicolons dividing multiple authors in bibliographies, see “Bibliography” under “Documentation” below.)
b. The semicolon follows quotation marks.
c. A semicolon may be used before such expressions as “that is,” “namely,” and the like if the break in continuity is greater than that signaled by the comma.
He maneuvered the speaker into changing the course of the discussion; that is, he introduced an issue about which he knew the speaker had particularly strong feelings.
d. Put a semicolon between independent clauses not connected by a conjunction, “so,” or “yet.”
a. A colon should not be used after the introductory phrase before a run-in list if the list is a complement or object of an element in the introductory phrase.
The spices used were sage, thyme, and fennel seed.
Selection criteria include geographic location, total enrollment, and entrance difficulty.
b. A colon should be used before a run-in list that is in apposition with a noun in the introductory phrase.
The ingredients consisted of the following elements: molybdenum, mercury, etc.
c. Do not cap a complete sentence or independent clause after a colon except when more than one sentence fulfills the expectation raised by the sentence or phrase preceding the colon.
International students find many interesting activities on campus: There is an international student choral group that performs regularly. In addition, there are many intercultural events on campus.
An ellipse (. . .) is used to mark the omission of a word or phrase in a quoted passage. Four ellipsis points (actually a period plus three ellipsis points) mark an omission between sentences. In a quotation of several paragraphs, the omission of an intervening paragraph (or paragraphs) is indicated by a period plus three ellipsis points at the end of the paragraph preceding the omitted parts. And if a paragraph other than the first one begins with a sentence that does not open the paragraph, it should be preceded by three ellipsis points plus the usual paragraph indentation.
Ellipses should not be used (1) before or after an obviously incomplete sentence, (2) before a block quotation beginning with a complete sentence or an incomplete sentence that completes a sentence in the text, (3) after a block quotation that ends with a complete sentence, or (4) before or after a run-in quotation of a complete sentence.
Ben Franklin admonishes us to “plough deep while sluggards sleep.”
a. Most proper names that end with a sibilant (s, z, or a silent s, x, or z) form the possessive with ’s.
Berlioz’s opera, Dickens’s novel, Margaux’s bouquet
Traditional exceptions to the general rule are the names Jesus (in Jesus’ name) and Moses (Moses’ leadership). Names of more than one syllable with an unaccented ending pronounced -eez form another category of exceptions. Many Greek and Hellenized names belong to this category.
Euripides’ plays, Xerxes’ tomb; but N.B. Heraclitus’s philosophy, Prometheus’s gift of fire
b. Do not use the apostrophe to form the plurals of letters, figures, acronyms, and abbreviations unless misreading could otherwise occur.
PCs, IQs, CRTs, TVs, 1960s (but a’s, i’s, u’s, and Apple IIe’s)
a. Hyphens should be inserted between the elements of compound modifiers when they are placed before the noun. However, hyphens are avoided when proper nouns and adjectives are used as modifiers or when the compound modifier follows the noun.
higher-than-anticipated costs, a well-reasoned argument
Old World charm, Vietnam War veterans
A free-form sculpture, the sculpture was a free form
b. A temporary adjective compound is formed only in the attributive position—i.e., when it precedes the noun it modifies but not when it follows it.
This is a well-educated student.
This student is well educated.
c. Do not hyphenate a compound consisting of an adverb ending in “ly” plus a participle or an adjective, but hyphenate an adjective ending in “ly” plus a participle.
poorly written, highly publicized
fully informed press
highly complex formula
but friendly-sounding voice
d. Do not hyphenate a comparative or a superlative formed by the use of “more” or “most” or “less” or “least.”
more highly rated program, most highly rated program
less competitive college, least competitive college
e. Hyphenate a compound consisting of a comparative or a superlative plus a participle.
lower-priced tuition, more-desired meal plan
better-paying assistantship, highest-paid professor
f. The prefixes non-, anti-, post-, pre-, etc., are normally joined to the word without a hyphen, except in some cases of prefixes ending with a vowel followed by a word beginning with a vowel or when the word following is a proper noun or adjective.
barrier-free, bell-like, co-op, de-emphasize, post-master’s degree, pre-engineering, semi-independent, -odd (as in forty-odd)
If uncertain about the spelling of a compound formed with a prefix, consult a dictionary.
g. If a prefix is attached to a hyphenated compound, hyphenate the prefix.
English-speaking student, non-English-speaking student
government-insured funds, non-government-insured funds
but multimillion-dollar complex
h. The ages of people are generally spelled out and separated by hyphens.
He was just an eight-year-old boy. (But cf. The boy was eight years old.)
He will be sixty-seven tomorrow.
i. The following are some instances when hyphens are used:
(i) Before a capital letter
(ii) To distinguish between homonyms
(iii) To join a prefix to a numeral
mid-1990s (but “from the mid to the late 1990s” because “mid” is both an adjective and a prefix.)
a. Use the en dash (–) to form a compound adjective of which any parts consist of two words.
a business administration–economics program
the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex
But “twenty-three-month” as an adjective is correct. The reader would not understand twenty-three–month; it would simply look like an error.
b. Use an en dash for ranges both parts of which are solid.
c. Use the en dash for ranges with open parts.
10 am–4:30 pm
d. Do not combine a preposition with an en dash.
from 1,500 to 1,800 students (not from 1,500–1,800 students)
e. If a prefix is attached to an open compound, use an en dash after the prefix.
pre–Civil War period
f. Use an em dash (—) to mark a sudden break in thought that causes an abrupt change in sentence structure. Consider alternative punctuation, particularly parentheses, when it may suffice.
a. Brackets ( [ / ] ) are used to set off a word or phrase that has been added by the author or editor to a quoted passage.
“In the writings of [Thomas] Paine . . .”
N.B. Use brackets and not parentheses when new text is added to a quote.
b. Brackets are also used to indicate parentheses within parentheses.
(This reference can be found in John Doe, Reading Literature [New York: Travis, 1989], p. 29.)
1. Points of the compass should be capitalized when they refer to geographical regions but lowercased when they refer to simple directions.
They settled in the West.
Go west on Main Street.
North America, Southeast Asia (but cf. east Los Angeles, northern Idaho, when the geographical location is not part of the proper name).
2. Corporate, professional, religious, and government titles are capitalized when preceding a name but lowercased without a proper name or when a title is used as an appositive following the verb “to be.”
Pope John Paul II, the pope’s view on birth control
Prime Minister Tony Blair, British prime minister Tony Blair
Board of Education, the board
There are exceptions, however, e.g., the Supreme Court, the Court (to distinguish it from lower courts). In case of doubt, the Chicago Manual should be consulted.
3. Regularly lowercased governmental terms are cabinet, federal, administration.
4. “Gospel” is uppercase when referring to a specific Gospel (e.g., Gospel of Mark). The words “Gospel,” “Scripture,” and “Bible” are normally uppercase, but the adjectives “scriptural” and “biblical” are usually lowercase.
5. In quotations, lowercase words may be capitalized in the following instances:
a. If a quotation that is only part of a sentence in the original forms a complete sentence as quoted, a lowercase letter may be changed to a capital where the structure of the text suggests it.
As Aristotle remarked, “Those who are eminent in virtue usually do not stir up insurrections.”
b. In very scholarly works usually and in legal works always, a lowercase word following the period and ellipses or just an ellipsis is not capitalized unless brackets are used to indicate it.
. . . destructive. . . . [T]he Conservative Party . . .
6. In titles of works, certain short words like “in,” “out,” “on,” “off,” “up,” and “down” can function as either prepositions or adverbs. An easy rule of thumb for distinguishing them is that, if the little word can be placed before and after the neighboring noun, it is an adverb and must be capped. If the little word can be placed only before the noun, it is usually a preposition and is capped according to the number of letters it contains. The phrase “out of” is always a preposition.
Giving Up One’s Title/Giving One’s Title Up (adv.)
Sailing up the River (prep.)
Putting In Phone Lines/Putting Phone Lines In (adv.)
Looking in the Dictionary (prep.)
Putting On a Hat/Putting a Hat On (adv.)
Stepping on a Hat (prep.)
Exception: If one of a pair of prepositions must be capped, cap both.
Happenings In and Around Town (preps.)
7. Do not capitalize “the” mid-sentence as part of a university or publication name. “I am enrolled at The George Washington University” is incorrect.
1. Titles of books, journals, plays, motion pictures, continuing series on radio or television, art and musical works, the names of legal cases, specific ships, aircraft, and spacecraft are regularly italicized.
Origin of Species, Journal of the American Medical Association, Romeo and Juliet, Gold Diggers of 1933, Masterpiece Theatre, Rodin’s The Thinker, Roe v. Wade, RMS Titanic (the Titanic), Spirit of St. Louis, Sputnik II
2. Following a possessive, an article beginning a title may be dropped.
Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter was first published in 1850.
The Scarlet Letter was first published in 1850.
3. Unpublished works (such as dissertations), chapters within a book, and titles of single poems and songs are regularly not italicized. Unitalicized as well are the names of single episodes of television and radio shows. Instead, they are set off in quotation marks.
“The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” Hill Street Blues, “Death on the Hill,” “Ode to Billie Joe”
4. Designations of class and of make and the names of trains, airplanes, and space programs are capitalized but unitalicized.
U-boat, Concorde, Broadway Limited
5. [Sic] (“so,” “thus,” “in this manner”) in a quoted passage follows a word misspelled or misused in the original passage. However, the scholarly abbreviations “ibid.,” “et al.,” “ca.,” and “passim” are normally unitalicized. Also unitalicized are such phrases commonly used in English as “ceteris paribus,” “a priori,” “a posteriori,” “quid pro quo,” “status quo,” “prima facie,” and “vis-à-vis.”
6. Foreign words or phrases not regularly used in English or likely to be unfamiliar to the reader are usually italicized and their English meaning indicated or enclosed in parentheses. There is some leeway on what constitutes an “unusual” word or phrase.
Honi soit qui mal y pense (“Evil to him who thinks evil”) is the motto of the Order of the Garter.
The captatio benevolentiae, or appeal to the reader or listener, constituted a standard feature of the classical rhetoric.
(But cf. an ad hoc argument, a real Italian trattoria.)
7. Technical terms, especially when accompanied by a definition, and key terms in a discussion are regularly italicized when they first appear and are set in nonitalic type thereafter.
What is meant by random selection?
Tabular matter is copy, usually consisting of figures, that is set in columns.
8. An author wishing to call particular attention to a word or phrase in quoted material may italicize it but must tell readers what has been done, by means of such phrases as “italics mine,” “italics added,” “emphasis added,” or “emphasis mine.” This information appears either in parentheses following the quotation or in a source note to the quotation. If there are italics in the original of the passage quoted, the information is best enclosed in brackets and placed directly after the added italics. N.B. Consistency in usage throughout the work is essential.
Many factors determine whether a number should be spelled out. The following general rules apply.
1. Spell out:
a. whole numbers from one through one hundred (but when referring to page numbers, write “page 99,” not “ninety-nine”; chapter 23, not “twenty-three”). When referring to a page number of another work or your own work, the word page is spelled out.
b. any of the above followed by hundred, thousand, million, etc. One sensible exception is when monetary amounts are being discussed (e.g., $40 billion, £6 million, etc.)
c. ages of persons (see Hyphen, above)
d. numbers that lead off a sentence
2. Round numbers, that is, approximations used in place of exact numbers, generally fit the category of numbers to be spelled out.
The population of Grand Rapids, Michigan, is around two hundred thousand.
3. “Percent” (%) is spelled out, except in tables. The number before percent is given as a figure unless it leads off a sentence.
4. However, when spelled-out numbers and percents would cluster thickly in a sentence or paragraph, it is often better to use figures or symbols.
5. If one number is written as a numeral, all numbers in that category in the immediate area must be written as numerals.
A mixture of buildings––one of 103 stories, five of more than 50, and a dozen of only 3 or 4––has been suggested for the area.
D. Gender-Neutral Language
We strive for gender neutrality insofar as possible, thus, “humankind” for “mankind.” However, to discourage the repetitious use of he/she, him/her, or (s)he, we suggest shifting the gender periodically throughout, thus having “he” in one and “she” in the following section or paragraph.
As a secular and humanist/freethought publisher, Prometheus prefers BCE (Before the Common Era) to BC (Before Christ) and CE (Common Era) to AD (Anno Domini). These should be set in full caps following the year.
When numerals are used to represent specific times of day, the abbreviations AM and PM should be in smaller capital letters without periods (am and pm) or in lowercase with periods (but not a mixture of both).
5:22 a.m., 10:39 pm
IV. Grammar and Usage
Even the most seasoned writers routinely make mistakes. Below are some common grammatical errors that should be avoided.
A. Dangling Modifiers
According to William Strunk Jr. and E. B. White in the classic Elements of Style, a modifier is a “word or phrase that qualifies . . . the meaning of a word, phrase, or clause.” A dangling modifier is a qualifier that has been misplaced.
WRONG: On arriving at the station, the bulletin board informed us . . .
Because the bulletin board did not arrive at the station, the modifier is in the wrong place.
RIGHT: On arriving at the station, we learned from the bulletin board . . .
Here is another example:
WRONG: In cooperation with hospital, state, and industrial organizations, studies are being made of problems in occupational health, nutrition, and heart disease.
RIGHT: In cooperation with hospital, state, and industrial organizations, the institute is studying problems in occupational health, nutrition, and heart disease.
B. Faulty Reference of Pronouns
When a pronoun (e.g., “them”) doesn’t agree with the noun to which it refers (e.g., “the official”), this is noun-pronoun disagreement.
WRONG: Every full-time undergraduate is eligible for office and every one of them votes.
In this case, “them” does not match the noun it refers to, “undergraduate.”
RIGHT: Every full-time undergraduate is eligible for office, and every one votes.
C. Disagreement of Subject and Verb
The number of the verb depends on the number of the subject.
WRONG: These notes should be read carefully before the directories or roster are used.
The verb should agree with the nearer of two subjects joined by “or.”
RIGHT: These notes should be read carefully before the directories and roster are used.
Phrases introduced by “as well as” or any of the following expressions do not affect the number of the subject when they separate it from the verb: accompanied by, along with, besides, followed by, in addition to, including, no less than, plus, rather than, together with, with.
D. Lack of Parallel Structure
According to Strunk and White, parallel constructions require that “expressions similar in content and function be outwardly similar.” That is, similar groups of ideas should be treated the same way.
WRONG: The school accepts not only transfer students but encourages part-time students as well.
The parts after “not only” and “but also” must match—but they don’t.
RIGHT: The school not only accepts transfer students but also encourages part-time students.
Here is another example of a lack of parallel structure:
WRONG: The college fields track and hockey teams as well as offering skeet and trap.
The ideas before and after “as well as” must match.
RIGHT: The college fields track and hockey teams as well as offers skeet and trap.
E. Illogical Grouping
Similar to a lack of parallelism, an illogical grouping is a series words that doesn’t make sense.
WRONG: Generals Lois, Clarke, and Admiral Halsey
Because Admiral Halsey is not a general like Lois and Clarke, the grouping must be rewritten.
RIGHT: Generals Lois and Clarke and Admiral Halsey
F. Prepositions and Split Infinitives
Don’t be prejudiced against the old superstition about split infinitives and sentences that end with a preposition. Leave them alone if the word sequence sounds natural. Recasting often produces an awkward or artificial effect.
G. “That” versus “Which”
Substitute “that” for “which” in restrictive clauses. Here’s a good rule of thumb: “that” should be used for defining clauses and “which” for nondefining. If “which” is appropriate, it is always preceded by a comma.
The poker group that meets Tuesday evening makes a mighty fine nacho dip.
This is a defining clause—that is, out of all the poker groups, the one that meets Tuesday evening concocts the best chip dip.
The poker group, which meets Tuesday evening, makes a mighty fine nacho dip.
In this case, there is only one poker group, and, incidentally, it meets Tuesday evening.
The following is just sampling. In case of doubt, the Chicago Manual should be consulted. N.B. It is expected that all sources will be fully and consistently documented.
1. The first citation of a work should include the author’s first name (or initial) and last name, the full title, place of publication, name of publishing company, date, volume(s), and page number(s). Note the use of postal abbreviations for states in publication details.
a. Book citations should appear as follows:
David Bettelson, The Lazy South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), p. 90.
Richard Taylor, Restoring Pride: The Lost Virtue of Our Age (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1996), p. 23.
b. Article citations should appear as follows:
James F. Powers, “Frontier Municipal Baths and Social Interaction in Thirteenth-Century Spain,” American Historical Review 84 (June 1979): 655.
John Smith, “Modern Moral Philosophy,” Philosophy Today 18, no. 3 (1962): 63.
Allan Gibbard, review of The Sources of Normativity, by Christine M. Korsgaard, Ethics 110, no. 1 (1999): 140–64.
Note: An initial “the” in the titles of journals and magazines is not included in notes or bibliographies.
Associated Press, “Westchester Approves Measures on Gun Safety,” New York Times, June 12, 2000, p. A12.
Doug Henwood, “Beyond Globophobia,” Nation, December 1, 2003, p. 18.
2. A citation from a multivolume work would be as follows:
C. I. Cline, ed., The Letters of George Meredith, 3 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970), 1: 215.
3. If a work has two or more authors, the full names of up to three authors should be written out; if a work has more than three authors, only the first should be spelled out, followed by (unitalicized) et al. (“and others”).
4. Subsequent notes citing the works given above, including the author’s last name, the (possibly abbreviated) title, and the page number(s) would be as follows:
Bettelson, The Lazy South, p. 203. (The scholarly abbreviation op. cit. [in the work cited] is no longer used.)
Powers, “Frontier Municipal Baths,” p. 667.
Cline, The Letters of George Meredith, 1: 217.
5. The same work cited consecutively is noted by (unitalicized) ibid. (for ibidem = in the same place) followed by a comma and the page number. If the page number is the same, ibid. alone is written.
6. Classical works and books of the Bible have their own citation style.
a. Greek , Latin, and medieval works were normally divided into books and further subdivisions of books (whether lines or sections) and should be cited in this manner.
Homer Odyssey 9.266–71 (= Book 9, lines 266–71)
Cicero De officiis 1.133 (= Book 1, section 133)
b. References to scriptural passages in notes use abbreviations for most books of the Bible (see Chicago Manual, 15th ed., pp. 578–79). References should include book (its title unitalicized), chapter, and verse.
Heb. 13:18; Ruth 3:1–18
c. In the text, biblical references are normally spelled out.
According to Genesis 1:27, God created man in his own image.
7. Prometheus cannot accept embedded references in the text.
The Neanderthal period was particularly significant for invertebrates (Jones 1942).
Notes should be in humanities style with superscripted numbers in the text.
1. Works in a bibliography are normally listed alphabetically by the author’s last name or, if there is no named author, by the first word of the title, excluding the articles “the” and “a(n).” The first line of the citation is flush with the left-hand margin; all subsequent lines of the citation are indented.
2. For books and articles, the style preferred by Prometheus is:
Bakhtin, Mikhail. Rabelais and His World. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1968.
Smith, John Q. Urban Turmoil: The Politics of Hope. New York: Polis, 1986.
Wise, Penelope. “Money Today: Two Cents for a Dollar.” No Profit Review 2
3. When a book or article has two or more authors, the name of the first should be in reverse order, with the first and last names separated by a comma, followed by the names of the other author(s) in normal order and not separated by a comma.
Unwin, L. P., and Joseph Galloway
Merk, Jane S., Ida J. Fogg, and C. Q. Snowe
4. If a bibliography includes more than one work by the same author, the author’s name is written out in the first citation and indicated by a three-em dash (———) thereafter.
C. Web Site Citations
N.B. The complete URL for an article is required and must include the protocol (http, ftp). This abbreviation is invariably followed by a colon and a double slash, after which appears the publisher’s domain name, followed by the path to the resource and the date the article was accessed.
http://www.buffalonews.com/2000/05/09/politics.htm (accessed March 25, 2002)
www.buffalonews.com/2000/05/09/politics.htm or www.buffalonews.com
1. In notes, the citation is: Author, “Article,” Web site name if available, article date if available, Web address (date accessed).
1. Meg French, “Why I Love Prometheus,” http://www.adelphia.net/~megfrench/prometheus.htm (accessed May 9, 2000).
2. Sandra Tan, “41 Co-workers Share $25 Million Payday,” Buffalo News, May 9, 2000, http://www.buffalonews.com/2000/05/09/politics.htm (accessed March 25, 2002).
3. Bernard Testa and Lamont B. Kier, “Emergence and Dissolvence in the Self Organisation of Complex Systems,” Entropy 2, no. 1 (2000): 17, http://www.mdpi.org/entropy/papers/e2010001.pdf (accessed June 1, 2001).
2. In bibliographies, the format is: Author. “Article.” Web site name if available, article date if available. Web address (date accessed).
French, Meg. “Why I Love Prometheus.”
http://www.adelphia.net/~megfrench/prometheus.htm (accessed May 9, 2000).
Tan, Sandra. “41 Co-workers Share $25 Million Payday.” Buffalo News, May 9, 2000. http://www.buffalonews.com/2000/05/09/politics.htm (accessed March 25, 2002).
Testa, Bernard, and Lamont B. Kier. “Emergence and Dissolvence in the Self-Organisation of Complex Systems.” Entropy 2, no. 1 (2000): 17. http://www.mdpi.org/entropy/papers/e2010001.pdf (accessed June 1, 2001).
D. Personal Communications
Though personal correspondence is rarely listed in a bibliography, the format for citing it in notes is: Interviewer, type of communication, date.
Andrew MacMillan, in discussion with the author, September 1998.
Constance Conlon, e-mail message to author, April 17, 2000.
A good index records every pertinent statement made within the body of the text and usually includes both proper name and subject entries. Indexed proper names include not only those of persons and other entities discussed in text or notes but frequently also those of authorities cited. The index submission should follow the same rule as manuscript submission (see I. General Rules for Submission, no. 1). The index should be done in single-column, single-spaced format.
N.B. The following are general rules. Please consult The Chicago Manual of Style for more specific information.
1. Indexes may be alphabetized by the word-by-word system or the letter-by-letter system. The Chicago Manual of Style preference is for the letter-by-letter system.
word by word:
letter by letter:
2. When discussion of a subject continues for more than a page, the sequence of pages is given: 34–36, 100–109, 192–96, and so on. CMS style calls for en dashes, rather than hyphens, with continued numbers. A distinction is sometimes made between continued discussion of a subject (e.g., 34–36) and individual reference to the subject on a series of pages (34, 35, 36). If passing references to the subject over a long sequence of pages are actually important enough to index, passim may be used (e.g., 78–89 passim).
N.B. Never use the abbreviations f., ff., or et seq. in an index. Use only the actual sequence of pages.
3. Capitalize proper names only; lowercase subjects.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
4. Place a comma between the entry and page number(s): nebula, 12, 25, 45–53.
5. When a person, a place, and a thing have the same name, they are arranged in normal alphabetical order.
London, England hoe, garden
London, Jack Hoe, Robert
6. Acronyms, arbitrary combinations of letters, and most abbreviations, when used as headings, are alphabetized letter by letter. Identification may be added in parentheses.
AARP (American Association of Retired Persons)
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers)
EU (European Union)
For some acronyms and abbreviations, it may be appropriate to supply a cross-reference from the fully spelled-out name or provide an entry consisting of the full name followed by the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses.
7. Numerals may be alphabetized as though spelled out, especially when there are few such entries.
125th Street (alphabetized as one hundred twenty-fifth)
10 Downing Street (alphabetized as ten)
1066 (the year) (alphabetized as ten sixty-six)
8. Titles of works must be alphabetized by the first key term; the author’s last name enclosed in parentheses should follow the title. An initial article follows the rest of the title, separated by a comma.
Old Curiosity Shop, The (Dickens)
“Raven, The” (Poe)
War and Peace (Tolstoy)
9. Personal names beginning with Mac, Mc, or M’ are preferably alphabetized letter-by-letter as they appear.
MacMillan, Donald B.
McAdoo, William G.
10. Geographic proper names beginning with Mount, Lake, Cape, Sea, and the like that actually refer to mountains, lakes, capes, and seas should be alphabetized according to the part of the name following this element. The name itself is inverted.
Japan, Sea of
Geneva, Lake (Switzerland)
Names of cities or towns beginning with these same elements should be alphabetized according to the first element, with accompanying postal abbreviations for states.
Cape Girardeau, MO
Lake Geneva, WI
Mount Vernon, NY
Sea Girt, NJ
A. Some Commonly Misspelled Words
accommodate not accomodate
accumulate not accummulate
acknowledgment not acknowledgement (British)
antidote (a counteractive substance) not anecdote (a short account or story)
beneficent not beneficient
colossal not collossal
commitment not committment
compliment (when making a positive statement about someone) not complement (to augment or enhance)
correspondence not correspondance
cumulative not cummulative
embarrass not embarass
exhilarated not exhilerated
grievous not grievious
harass not harrass
independent not independant
judgment not judgement
lightning not lightening
millennia not millenia (but millenarian, not millennarian)
minuscule not miniscule
mischievous not mischievious
misspell not mispell
privilege not priviledge
resistant not resistent
The first six words below are some commonly used words in English that retain the accents of the language from which they were assimilated; the last six words do not.